A System of Government distributes power among different levels of the country. The amount of power held by the central government determines the system of government a country is practicing. Generally, we have so many systems of Government, they include but are not limited to, presidential, parliamentary, Constitutional, Absolute Monarchy, Unitary, Democratic, Military/Dictatorship, Confederate, Federal, Republican, Oligarchy, Totalitarian, Constitutional, Capitalist, Communist and Socialist systems, etc.
System of Government in Nigeria
Nigeria practices the federal system of government, with executive powers exercised by the president. The president is the head of state, the head of government, and the head of a multi-party system. Nigerian politics takes place within a political framework of a federal, presidential, representative democratic republic system.
Federalism is a system of government that involves the devolution of governmental powers amongst the central government and component region. Federalism is a system of government that establishes a constitutionally specified division of powers between different levels of government, usually between the federal government and its components (state and local government). In a federal system, the state and local governments need to have workable structures of government through which the powers vested in them can be exercised. Federalism is an institutional arrangement creating relatively autonomous levels of government, each able to act directly on behalf of the people with granted authority. In other words, both the federal, state, and local governments have the power to make laws and both have a certain level of autonomy from each other. Federal systems are usually associated with culturally diverse or territorially large countries this is because it allows distinct communities, defined by their territorial boundaries, to exercise a certain level of autonomy over matters of particular importance while being part of a larger federal government through which shared powers and responsibilities are exercised over matters of general Importance. Federalism in Nigeria can be traced to the introduction of the Richard Constitution in 1946, which had a quasi-federal structure. It was this constitution that first divided the country into three major regions.
A presidential system – this is a form of government in which the head of government (president) leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch. The head of government is in most cases also the head of state. In this form of government, powers are shared among usually three separate and coequal Arms, they include the Executive, the Legislative, and Judiciary. In a presidential system of government, there is separation of power mainly for checks and balances, to prevent the abuse of powers as one arm will serve as a watchdog and create a balance to safeguard the public interest.
Constitutional System – this is a government that operates under a constitution, which may be a legal instrument or merely a set of fixed norms or principles generally accepted as the fundamental law of that Country (Grundnorm)
Democratic System – this is a rule or government of or by the people and for the people, it is a system of government in which laws, policies, leadership, and major undertakings of a state or other polity are directly or indirectly decided by the “people,” a group historically constituted by only a minority of the population. Nigeria is governed by democratically elected leaders at the federal and state levels, Nigeria practices what is known as representative democracy (indirect democracy) this type of democracy is founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy. Nigeria is a Democratic republic.
Republicanism – is a political ideology centered on citizenship, when you say Nigeria is a republic, it means the citizens have the voting power and the power to make changes in their government while a democratic republic, is a country in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote for officers and representatives responsible to them.
In Conclusion, it is worthy to note, that Nigeria practice federalism, one which is deeply rooted in constitutionalism and pluralism, this is because a well-functioning federal system of government is by its very nature constitutional and pluralist since it is founded on discussions of balanced centers of power and the recognition of minorities under a broad political framework of agreed constitutional rules.